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"I would encourage to implement the development projects in vocational training, promoting adult literacy rate, infrastructure projects, health care ect., at our rakhine state .Government has just two hands which can not cover everything ."Rakhine Student at Philippine

"We want to pursue free trade agreements outside the country . Stronger bilateral trade relations could help Uruguay expand education, improve health care, and generate jobs with adequate salaries.”Tabaré Vázquez ,Uruguay President , 2006 .

"Individually all the adults need to literate and catch international standard education. Improving education is developing our country , training our adults for Human Resource development like Singapore which is country doesn't have too many resources but have many talented adults ." Rakhine Lecture at Yangon University,who is representative for Myanmar at ASEAN youth meeting in 2008 at Thailand .

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Invlove in Sports and Education Activities

In our state , we need to keep in touch with International Education Standards .More Importantly , all of our individual people need to get Internet access, Educational Softwares ,highly trained teachers . Every graduated adults and women need to involve as a part time volunteers in their interested subjects like arts,music,sports,tours and computer .So start business the Internet cafes and start free educations at our Rakhine monestries .

Rakhine Territory was governed by kingdom system and also Scotland is like Rakhine State . Scotland got involve under the United Kingdom aggrement in last histy like Rakhine state under Union of Myanmar. They had separately owned governments , laws ,not like England. We need to get self-government system.I appreciate the old name of country like Unoin States of Myanmar, not Union of Myanmar, which is the slightly different meaning but big differences among national races.

Our Rakhine language need to teach officially our generation at the state education curriclums .
Our people need more language fluency in English , other languages and need to contact to other countries and International organizatons through Internet.Our Rakhine State Official Language should be English language .

There are also famous Scotland football players and teams ,even though they are under UK . So our state need more state players which is look like the soldiers of our country because being state players can famous our state and that players can compete with other countries players or other state players . If no competitors for our state , there will not be any success ,any development and our people never proud among others .Not only in sport competions , but also we need to compete others at all the sectors .If our people can't decide and rule our policies of state , our people will left behind .

There are too many sport competitions in South Asia ,Europe,Middle East Regions weekly and also in schools . Their people are getting famous and getting brighter in the future among other countries. There are sports NGOs and sport institutes in Africa Continent.Sports is significantly advantage for us . So we surely need more different kind of local NGOs and invite more INGOs of different sectors into our state .

Aung

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Eight accepted criteria used to determine whether an entity is an independent country

Why Scotland Does Not Meet the Definition of an Independent State?

1#Has space or territory that has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK). Yes, Scotland does have internationally recognized boundaries. Scotland is 78,133 square kilometers in area.


2# Has people who live there on an ongoing basis. Yes, according to the 2001 census, Scotland's population is 5,062,011.

3# Has economic activity and an organized economy. A country regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money. Somewhat. Scotland certainly has economic activity and an organized economy; Scotland even has its own GDP (over 62 billion pounds as of 1998). However, Scotland does not regulate foreign or domestic trade, the Scottish Parliament is not authorized to do so.

Under the terms of the Scotland Act 1998, the Scottish Parliament is able to pass laws on a range of issues known as "devolved issues." The United Kingdom Parliament is able to act on "reserved issues." Reserved issues include a variety of economic issues: fiscal, economic and monetary system; energy; common markets; and trade and industry. The Bank of Scotland does issue money but it prints the British pound on behalf of the central government.

4# Has the power of social engineering, such as education.
Somewhat. The Scottish Parliament is able to control education, training, and social work (but not social security). However, this power was granted to Scotland by the UK Parliament.

5# Has a transportation system for moving goods and people.
Somewhat. Scotland itself has a transportation system but the system is not fully under Scottish control. The Scottish Parliament controls some aspects of transportation, including the Scottish road network, bus policy and ports and harbors while the UK Parliament controls railways, transport safety and regulation. Again, Scotland's power was granted by the UK Parliament.

6# Has a government that provides public services and police power.
Somewhat. The Scottish Parliament has the ability to control law and home affairs (including most aspects of criminal and civil law, the prosecution system and the courts) as well as the police and fire services. The UK Parliament controls defense and national security across the United Kingdom. Again, Scotland's power was granted to Scotland by the UK Parliament.

7# Has sovereignty. No other State should have power over the country's territory.
No. The United Kingdom Parliament definitely has power over Scotland's territory.

8# Has external recognition. A country has been "voted into the club" by other countries.
No. Scotland does not have external recognition nor does Scotland have its own embassies in other independent countries.
Thus, as you can plainly see, Scotland (nor Wales, nor Northern Ireland, nor England itself) is not an independent country nor is it a State. However, Scotland is most certainly a nation of people living in an internal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The Kingdom of Scotland was an independent state until 1 May 1707 when it joined in a political union with the Kingdom of England to create a united Kingdom of Great Britain.[14][15] This union was the result of the Treaty of Union agreed in 1706 and put into effect by the Acts of Union that were passed by the Parliaments of both countries despite widespread protest across Scotland.[16][17] Scotland's legal system continues to be separate from those of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland and Scotland still constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and in private law.[18] The continued independence of Scots law, the Scottish education system, and the Church of Scotland have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and Scottish national identity since the Union.[19] Although Scotland is no longer a separate sovereign state, the constitutional future of Scotland continues to give rise to debate.

http://geography.about.com/od/politicalgeography/a/scotlandnot.htm

Friday, February 20, 2009

History of Shwedagon Pagoda

Location Yangon, Myanmar

Constructed 6th century
Use Pilgrim, and missionary of Buddhism
Height Antenna/Spire 112.17 metres (368 ft)
Roof 105 metres (344 ft)

Architect King Okkalapa

According to legend, the Shwedagon Pagoda is 2500 years old. Archaeologists believe the stupa was actually built sometime between the 6th and 10th centuries by the Mon, but this is a very controversial issue because according to the records by Buddhist monks it was built before Lord Buddha died in 486 BC. The story of Shwedagon Pagoda begins with two merchant brothers, Taphussa and Bhallika, from the land of Ramanya, meeting the Lord Gautama Buddha and receiving eight of the Buddha's hairs to be enshrined in Burma. The two brothers made their way to Burma and with the help of the local king, King Okkalapa, found Singuttara Hill.

The stupa fell into disrepair until the 1300s when the Mon king Binnya U of Bago had the stupa rebuilt to a height of 18 meters (60 ft). The Mon kingdom possessed two great pagodas of especial sanctity, the Shwemawdaw at Bago and the Shwedagon.

Originally only twenty-seven feet high, it was raised to a height of sixty-six feet in 1362 by King Binnya U as an act of special piety. Dhammazedi's immediate predecessor, his mother-in-law Queen Shinsawbu (1453-72), raised its height to 40 meters (129 ft). In 1472 she yielded up the throne to Dhammazedi, she retired to Dagon.

The worst damage came from a 1768 earthquake that brought down the top of the stupa and it was raised to its current state by King Hsinbyushin (lit. Lord of the White Elephant) of Konbaung Dynasty. A new hti or crown was donated by King Mindon Min in 1871 after the annexation of Lower Burma by the British.

The worst damage came from a 1768 earthquake that brought down the top of the stupa and it was raised to its current state by King Hsinbyushin (lit. Lord of the White Elephant) of Konbaung Dynasty. A new hti or crown was donated by King Mindon Min in 1871 after the annexation of Lower Burma by the British.

Wars and Invasions
In 1608 the Portuguese adventurer Philip de Brito e Nicote, known as Nga Zinka to the Burmese, plundered the Shwedagon and took the 30-ton bell donated in 1485 by King Dhammazedi who succeeded Shin Sawbu. De Brito's intention was to melt the bell down to make cannons, but when he carried it across the Bago River it dropped into the river never to be recovered.


http://www.answers.com/topic/shwedagon-pagoda

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Meaning of Life

The meaning of life constitutes a philosophical question concerning the purpose and significance of human existence. The concept can be expressed through a variety of related questions, such as Why are we here?, What's life all about? and What is the meaning of it all?. It has been the subject of much philosophical, scientific, and theological speculation throughout history and there have been a large number of answers from many different cultural and ideological backgrounds. This suggests the meaning of life is different for each person. Albert Camus observed, we humans are creatures who spend our lives trying to convince ourselves that our existence is not absurd. [1]

The meaning of life is deeply mixed with the philosophical and religious conceptions of existence, consciousness, and happiness, and touches on many other issues, such as symbolic meaning, ontology, value, purpose, ethics, good and evil, free will, conceptions of God, the existence of God, the soul and the afterlife. Scientific contributions are more indirect; by describing the empirical facts about the universe, science provides some context and sets parameters for conversations on related topics. An alternative, human-centric, and not a cosmic/religious approach is the question "What is the meaning of my life?" The value of the question pertaining to the purpose of life may be considered to be coincidal with the achievement of ultimate reality, if that is believed by one to exist.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meaning_of_life

Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Buddhism

Buddhism is mostly about ending the feeling of pain that all people feel inside. Gautama Buddha taught that pain is a part of all life. He taught that pain is because of desire. And he showed that there is a way to end desire and end pain by doing good things, not doing bad things, and training one's mind. This is done to end pain and gain enlightenment. Enlightenment is living in nirvana. (Nirvana means "ending", like a fire going out.)

Buddhism teaches non-harm and moderation or balance, not going too far one way or the other. Buddhists often meditate, or think deeply, while sitting in a special way. They often chant and meditate while walking. Buddhists sometimes do these things to understand the human heart and mind. Sometimes they do these things to understand the way the world works. Sometimes they do these things to find peace.


Buddha Statue: A Symbol of a Religious Founder
The Buddha Statue is a symbol of Buddhism's ancient founder, Siddhartha Gautama, a prince from northern India. He lived from about 563 to 483 BC. Buddhism originated as a form of atheism. They abandoned the idea of a personal God (Ishvara) who controlled the eternal fate of souls. Gautama denied the ancient theistic beliefs, because he found it challenging to bring together the idea of suffering and evil with the existence of a righteous God.

Buddha Statue: A Symbol of the Enlightened One
The Buddha Statue signifies the "Enlightened One," the basic idol of Buddhism. Buddhism conveys the philosophy of self-perfection - its essentials are contained in the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. Buddhism adheres to various "scriptures." Buddhists hold the Pali Canon to be the oldest and most authoritative "scripture." The Four Noble Truths affirm that (i) life is full of suffering (dukkha); (ii) suffering is caused by craving (samudaya); (iii) suffering will cease only when craving ceases (nirodha); and (iv) this can be achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path. Generally, the Path consists of right views, right aspiration, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right contemplation. Other Buddhist philosophies include the belief that nothing in life is permanent (anicca), that individual selves do not truly exist (anatta), that all is determined by an impersonal law of moral causation (karma), that reincarnation is an endless cycle of continuous suffering, and that the goal of life is to break out of this cycle by finally extinguishing the flame of life and entering a permanent state of pure nonexistence (nirvana).

Buddha Statue: A Symbol of a Belief System
The Buddha Statue represents a belief system that has evolved into three main philosophies:

Mahayana (the "Greater Vehicle") represents approximately 56% of the total Buddist population and is prominent in China, Japan and Korea. Over the years, Mahayana has opened itself to many different Asian beliefs and now treats Buddha as a god.
Theravada (the "Doctrine of the Elders") represents approximately 38% of the total Buddist population. Theravada is the closest to the original atheistic philosophy, and is principally followed in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and Myanmar (Burma).
Vajrayana (also known as Lamaism or Tantrism) represents the remaining 6% of Buddists and is primarily found in Tibet, Nepal and Mongolia. Vajrayana has added disturbing portions of shamanism and the occult. Currently, there are approximately 613 million Buddists worldwide, with approximately 1.5 million living in the United States. Buddhism has been growing in the U.S. due to surges in Asian immigration, endorsement by celebrities in music and movies, and its close ties to the New Age Movement.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_art

Monday, February 16, 2009

Histry of Chittagong

Chittagong has been a seaport since ancient times. Arabs traded with the port from the 9th century AD. The Chittagong region was under the kingdom of Arakan during the sixth and seventh centuries. Before Muslim rule, Chittagong had been either under the control of the Arakans or under the kings of Burma. Sultan Fakruddin Mubarak Shah of Sonargaon conquered Chittagong in 1340. The explorer Ibn Battuta passed through Chittagong during his travels. After the defeat of Sultan Ghyath ud-Din Mahmud Shah at the hands of Sher Shah Suri in 1538, the Arakanese again captured Chittagong. From this time onward until its conquest by the Mughals this region was under the control of the Portuguese and the Magh pirates. The Mughal Commander Umeed Khan expelled the Portuguese from the area in 1666 and established Mughal rule there. The Mughals renamed Chittagong as Islamabad. The city was occupied by Burmese troops shortly in First Anglo-Burmese War in 1824.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chittagong

http://www.rakhapura.com/articles/a-glimpse-of-rakhine.asp

Where was the empire of Rakhine in the last histry?

The dominant group that lives in the Arakan is the Rakhine Buddhists. In the year 957 C.E., a Mongolian invasion swept over Vesali (Vaisali) - the capital city - and killed Sula Chandra, the last Hindu king of Chandra dynasty. They destroyed Vesali and placed on their throne Mongolian kings. Mohammed Ashraf Alam writes, ?Within a few years the Hindus of Bengal were able to establish their Pala Dynasty.

But the Hindus of Vesali were unable to restore their dynasty because of the invasion and migrations of Tibeto-Burman who were so great that their population overshadowed the Vesali Hindus. They cut Arakan away from Indians and mixing in sufficient number with the inhabitants of the eastern-side of the present Indo-Burma divide, created that Indo-Mongoloid stock now known as the Rakhine Arakanese.

This emergence of a new race was not the work of a single invasion. But the date 957 AD may be said to mark the appearance of the Rakhine in Arakan, and the beginning of fresh period.? They were a wild people much given to plunder, violence, cruelty, kidnapping, enslavement and sea piracy, and came to be known as the Maghs of the Arakan. History researcher Alamgir Serajuddin writes, ?Their cruelty, comparable only to that of bargi marauders of later days, was a byword in Bengal. Shihabuddin Talish thus described it: “They carried off the Hindus and Muslims, male and female, great and small, few and many that they could seize, pierced the palms of their hands, passed thin canes through the holes and threw them one above another under the deck of their ships.?

After the Portuguese established their settlements in Chittagong, Sandwip and Arakan during the Mughal rule of India, the Rakhine Maghs entered into a scheme of plundering Mughal territory in Bengal by making an alliance with the Portuguese pirates. So the Magh-Portuguese piracy was a menace to the peace of Bengal until 1666, when the Mughals, under the governorship of Shaista Khan (1664-1688) conquered Chittagong from the Arakanese control. That year (1666) marked the decline of the Arakanese Empire. [The Arakanese (Rakhine) Maghs left Chittagong, never to reoccupy it, which became a part of Bengal (and now Bangladesh). However, plundering by the Magh-Portuguese pirates continued throughout the 18th century.

Historian G.E. Harvey writes, ?Renell?s map of Bengal, published in 1794 AD marks the area south of Backergunge ?deserted on account of the ravages of the Muggs (Arakanese)??. The Arakan pirates, both Magh and feringhi, used to come by the water-route and plunder Bengal?. Mohammedans underwent such oppression, as they had not to suffer in Europe. As they continually practiced raids for a long time, Bengal daily became more and more desolate and less and less able to resist them. Not a house was left inhabited on their side of the rivers lying on their track from Chittagong to Dacca. The district of Bakla [Backergunge and part of Dacca], which formerly abounded in houses and cultivated fields and yield a large revenue as duty on betel-nuts, was swept so clean with their broom of plunder and abduction that none was left to tenant any house or kindle a light in that region. ?? When Shayista Khan asked the feringhi deserters, what salary the Magh king had assigned to them, they replied, ?Our salary was the Mughal Empire. We considered the whole of Bengal as our fief. We had not to bother revenue surveyors and ourselves about court clerks but levied our rent all the year round without difficulty. We have kept the papers of the division of the booty for the last forty years.??

Because of their centuries of savagery, the Maghs of Arakan earned such a bad name that they started calling themselves the Rakhines.

The Rakhines practice Buddhism and their spoken language is pure Burmese with slight phonetic variation.

http://www.newsfinder.org/site/more/rakhine/

http://www.maplandia.com/burma/arakan-rakhine/

http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/M_0034.htm

Saturday, February 7, 2009

Lecture on old Rakhine

THE resident representative of a prestigious French university suggested in a lecture last week that the contribution of the ancient kingdom of Rakhine to Myanmar’s role as a gateway between South and Southeast Asia deserved further study. Dr Jacques Leider, a professor at the Ecole Francaise d’Extreme Orient in Paris who has spent the past year in Yangon, made the suggestion in an address titled L’Arakan, un royaume bouddhiste en Birmanie (‘Rakhine, a Buddhist kingdom in Myanmar’) at the Alliance Francaise last Tuesday. During an hour-long address, Dr Leider outlined how Rakhine’s history shows repeated social, cultural, economic and political links with Myanmar’s central heartland and such countries as modern-day Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Holland and Portugal.

One of the world’s leading specialists on Rakhine history, Dr Leider said that geography and international pressures created a unique kingdom in Rakhine for much of the last millennium. He urged anyone interested in Rakhine history should visit Mrauk-U, the site of one of the former kingdom’s major cities.

Kimberly Fielding